Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbon Classification : Aliphatics: open chains 1. alkanes ("paraffins"): contain only carbon-carbon single bonds (are saturated). Classification of Hydrocarbons. The general term aliphatic hydrocarbon refers to a compound that has a structure based on straight or branched chains or rings of carbon atoms. Other catalysts which can be used are Pt, Pd-BaSo4, Adams catalyst (Pt2O) or Wilkinson catalyst (R3PRhCl), etc. Alkanes. Download hydrocarbons JEE Previous Year Solved Questions PDF. Classification of Hydrocarbons There are many types of hydrocarbons, but in IGCSE chemistry we will be dealing with only 2 of them, Alkane and Alkene. The classification was done based on their source and properties. As defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, the classifications for hydrocarbons are: Metallic compounds: zinc, titanium, calcium, magnesium, vanadium, copper, nickel, and iron. Older chemists classified hydrocarbons as either aliphatic or aromatic. This is mainly due to the “self-bonding” or catenation of carbon that prevents the complete saturation of the hydrocarbon by the formation of double or triple bonds. Alkanes having same molecular mass but having a different number of branches, the one with less branching has more boiling point this is because of the Vanderwal’s force weak on as area increases. Terpenes are further classified by the number of carbons: monoterpenes (C 10), sesquiterpenes (C 15), diterpenes (C 20), etc. Non-Hydrocarbon Components In addition to hydrocarbons, crude oils contain amounts of: Organic non-hydrocarbon, sulfur-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-containing compounds. Hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. The study of hydrocarbons can provide insight into the chemical properties of other functional groups and their preparation. Less substituted alkenes formed as a major product. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Hydrocarbon - Hydrocarbon - Physical properties: The physical properties of alkenes and alkynes are generally similar to those of alkanes or cycloalkanes with equal numbers of carbon atoms. Classification of Hydrocarbons The compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen in their molecules are called hydrocarbons. For example, Carotenes is an organic pigment which is found in green leaves and carrots. This class can be further divided into two groups: … This process plays a very important role in the commercial production of diesel fuel and gasoline. The chemistry of these compounds is called organic chemistry. Sometimes catalysts are used to speed up the reaction. In this following topic we will discuss different types of hydrocarbon. Furthermore, hydrocarbons such as propane and butane are used for commercial fuel purposes in the form of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Density of oil is determined by the length of the hydrocarbons it contains. Classification of hydrocarbons’ exploration and exploitation projects 4 most profitable and largest ones (in terms of resources) are exploration projects. Aromatic compounds derive their names from the fact that many of these compounds in the early days of discovery were grouped because they were oils with fragrant odors. They serve as lubricating oil and grease. Open-chain or Aliphatic Compounds; Closed-chain … Hydrocarbons are organic compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen. Crude oil's classification as either “light” or “heavy” depends on the oil’s relative density, based on the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity. Alkanes generally having low boiling and melting points owing to their weak Vanderwal’s interaction. The important fuels like Petrol, kerosene, coal gas, CNG, LPG etc. If we look around us these hydrocarbons are widely distributed from fibre to petroleum, Coal to L P G used in daily life solvent in paints, dyes and drugs. Alkyl halides can be converted to alkanes through various methods. Older chemists classified hydrocarbons as either aliphatic or aromatic. However, today we classify hydrocarbons on the basis of structure and not merely on the origin. The reducing agents which can be used are LiAlH4, NaBH4, NaNH2, etc. These hydrocarbons make up to 98% of natural crude rubber. General formula: C H. For example LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), CNG (Liquefied natural gas). However, today we classify hydrocarbons on the basis of structure and not merely on the origin. As such, it was found out that Aliphatic hydrocarbons were derived from chemical degradation of fats or oils whereas aromatic hydrocarbons contained substances that were a result of chemical degradation of certain plant extracts. Study Materials Hydrocarbon Class 11 Formulas & Notes Hydrocarbons are composed of Carbon and hydrogen. CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROCARBONS The term HYDROCARBONS means organic compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen. With such capabilities, they can form more complex molecules like cyclohexane and in rare instances aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene. There are two main classes of hydrocarbons - aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. By using this definition, four classes of hydrocarbons are included: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic. Further, they possess large internal energy which renders them their importance. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. The four general classes of hydrocarbons are: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and arenes. Hydrocarbons are the organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only, e.g., alkane, alkene and alkynes. Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes due to the presence of the double bond. Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. The alkanes are saturated hydrocarbonsthat is, hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. Hydrocarbons and Oxides of Carbon: Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide Nomenclature and Preparation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Concepts, Q&A Classification of … The four general classes of hydrocarbons are: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and arenes. This is accomplished by supplying an adequate amount of heat and pressure. Introduction to Hydrocarbons. Strong, stable bonds between carbon atoms produce complex molecules containing chains, branches, and rings. Benzene, one of the simplest aromatic hydrocarbons, serves as raw material for the synthesis of many synthetic drugs. Overview. All addition reactions in alkenes are possible. Hydrocarbons are the principal constituents of petroleum and natural gas. Alkynes can be prepared from alkyl halides and alcohols. This measurement reflects how light or heavy a crude oil is compared to water. There are 3 mechanisms suggested for the elimination reactions. If the raw petroleum is of a high density then the petroleum classification is termed ‘heavy' and if it is of a low density the petroleum classification is termed 'light'. Meanwhile, cracking of Hydrocarbons is a process in which heavy organic molecules are broken down into lighter molecules. https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FCourses%2FPurdue%2FPurdue_Chem_26100%253A_Organic_Chemistry_I_(Wenthold)%2FChapter_03%253A_Structure_of_Alkanes%2F3.1_Classification_of_Hydrocarbons, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. The hydrocarbons, which contain atoms linked on the open chain are known as open-chain compounds. Introduction to classification of Hydrocarbon: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. These organic compounds find their application in the manufacturing of drugs and dyes as a starting material. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Hydrocarbons. As such, it was found out that Aliphatic hydrocarbons were derived from chemical degradation of fats or oils whereas aromatic hydrocarbons contained substances that were a result of chemical degradation of certain plant extracts. The carbon atoms join together to form the framework of the compound, and the hydrogen atoms attach to them in many different configurations. Important topics - Hydrocarbons (i) Classification of hydrocarbons (ii) Alkanes (iii) Alkenes (iv) Alkynes (v) Aromatic . Boiling point depends on the following factors: Alkanes having high molecular mass and high boiling points. Hydrocarbons are compounds comprised exclusively of carbon and hydrogen and they are by far the dominant components of crude oil, processed petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, fuel oil, and lubricating oil), coal tar, creosote, dyestuff, and pyrolysis waste products. The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms are known as hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons Class 11 Notes Chemistry Chapter 13 • Hydrocarbon A compound of carbon and hydrogen is known as hydrocarbon. Benzene generally undergoes electrophilic substitution reactions. Hydrocarbons are the simplest class of organic compounds and are composed solely of hydrogen and carbon. General formula: C H. 2. alkenes ("olefins"): contain a single carbon-carbon double bond. e.g., methane (CH 4), … Watch the recordings here on Youtube! 3. Alkenes are a class of hydrocarbons (e.g, containing only carbon and hydrogen) unsaturated compounds with at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond. The existence of hydrocarbons is seen in plants and trees. The hydrocarbons can be classified in the following three categories, on the basis of the bonds present between carbon-carbon atoms. Learn Videos. Missed the LibreFest? The alkanes can be produced from alkenes or alkynes through hydrogenation. it also described the types of hydrocarbons. are all hydrocarbons or their mixture. The most common aromatic hydrocarbons are those that contain a benzene ring. Chemistry. Typically, hydrocarbons are colourless gases that have very weak odours. The ability of hydrocarbons to bond to themselves is known as catenation. 4 mins. Within the exploration projects, shallow water projects are among the ones with highest profitability and least uncertainty. Plus I will cover some concepts about a derivative of hydrocarbons called Alcohols. More favoured in non-polar, aprotic solvents. Have questions or comments? • Saturated Hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon is said to be saturated if it contains only C—C single bonds. 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